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Sunday, 31 January 2016

Russian NOSOROG Revolvers AEK 906 - 1:

I swear that I didn't have any idea that there were so many Russian made revolvers!

Nosorog (Rhinoceros) AEK906 "Bottom Popper".

- However this is only the second 'six o'clock chamber' revolver I've seen that actually looks OK - and the designer has controlled himself and stopped short of adding weird space-age ugliness. (The other is the Stechkin OTS-38 captive piston silent gun)(Both are Russian made).

This gun also raises the question did Italian maker Chiappa call their bottom-chamber-popper the "Rhino" knowing that a Russian Rhinoceros was hiding out on the Steppes? - Who copied who?

Chiappa Rhino

The Nosorog is built to take 9mm Makarov cartridges in steel six round moon clips and while a sturdy built revolver it will not accept 9MM NATO ammunition - but they do have the AEK906-1 version that is built for that 9x19mm round.

- There is also a Nosorog M100 Top-Break Revolver. This gun looks suspiciously like an alternative version of the REX  Revolver - but using the bottom six o'clock chamber.

Nosorog M100 Top Break (bottom chamber)
 
 
Izhmash MP-412 REX .357 Magnum /.38" Revolver.
- US Imports Prevented.


- Life gets complicated 'ainit?'  I think that I'll stop looking for Russian Revolvers now as my head's starting to revolve eh.

Here's a question for you - to demonstrate that I do think about other things than guns: Why is one lot of my home grown Garlic so big yet another lot is next to useless? - Answers please written on the back of sealed bottles of Irish single-malt.
NZ made Magnum Leather Shoulder Holster Rig (Glock 17)placed for scale

Marty K.

Friday, 29 January 2016

'Assault' Rifle Shot In Pool:

Physicist Andreas Wahl showed faith in the laws of physics when he videoed and fired a rifle at himself under water.


Nice Clear Water.

The Daily Mail Online who ran this story typically describes the firearm only as an "Assault Rifle".


Andreas can certainly claim to have the courage of his conviction - it takes some cojones to stand there and pull that trigger eh - there are no leakage stains shown in the water around his shorts.

A great shooting Video.
 
Victory Retrieve - One Bullet.
 
The basic physics is that most guns may be fired under water provided that the barrel is completely filled with water and that the firing pin has enough energy to strike the primer properly. - But the bullet will rapidly loose velocity and fall because water is some 800 times denser (thicker) than air.
 
- Just as well that he didn't use one of these eh:
Tula Arms Plant Underwater Pistol uses Four Round 'Moon Clips'
- Flechettes or Darts have a 17 metre Effective Range at Shallow Depths
 
Well done that man - but I bet that he tested that gun and ammo first eh,
 
Marty K.

Thursday, 28 January 2016

460 S&W Magnum Cartridge (& Social Anthropology):

I heard a radio talk the other day saying that we should always try to start with a joke - maybe something like .. " Capitalism is Gods way to sort the clever from the poor."

 - Or maybe "Our Government is responsible and far-sighted and always spends our taxes wisely."

The 460 S&W Magnum was invented by Smith & Wesson Holding Corp (A Limited Liability Trust Company pursuant to the Act and Banking Law) to take advantage of their five shot  X-Frame revolvers oversized 2.3 inch cylinder length. (The demand for boat anchors being static).

This 460 S&W cartridge is basically a .454" Casull case lengthened to 1.8" - The .454" Casull (1.383" case) is in its turn a lengthened & up-powered  .45"Colt (1.285" long case) cartridge - that itself isn't at all under-powered. - It might perhaps be called a 'Superposed-Magnum'.
460S&W, .454Casull, .44"Magnum, .45"ACP, .22"LR

You might describe this cartridge as a high power handgun hunting cartridge that uses an increased powder charge and very high internal pressures to drive its .452" diameter bullet at a velocity of up to 2,330ft./per sec.

 I wouldn't  - I'd call it an extremely uncomfortable percussion grenade that needs a massive revolver to fire it .. one that no sentient human would choose to shoot more than once for fun.
A cartridge perhaps made for no other reason than that they could. - A bit like climbing up Mt. Everest because it's there (with a 5% Death Rate) - Odds of permanent physical injury from attempting to shoot a couple of boxes of this ammo without protection is likely much worse than 5%.

XVR stands for 'Extreme Velocity Revolver'
 
Versatile? - Certainly. Available with barrels up to 8.375" long - the XVR revolvers bore is notable for needing 'gain twist' rifling to cope with the pressure & velocity of the 460 S&W Magnum, - one turn in 100 increasing to 1 in 20.

X Frame makes M629 44 Magnum Look Small.
Does My Bum Look Fat In This?

definitely wouldn't want to stand in front of one - but then again, even with this steel lump weighing up to 72 ounces (that's 4.5lb. - over 2Kg!) I don't want to be behind one either .. or to either side!

We use our unique human 'biped' stance to free our hands - but a heavy kicking two kilos is a massive lump of thunder to hold-out at arms length when shooting standing upright - it would be easier to sit and flinch at a bench with this S&W X Frame eh.

- Did you ever think about why we go on two legs rather than four? - Maxine Sheets-Johnstone from the University of Oregon thinks that long ago we men rose up onto our hind legs as a way to show-off our penises.
Men have those. - In her view females were doing it for the opposite reason - to conceal their genitals - which are otherwise much more on display when on all fours.
 
Social Anthropology in shooting eh ..

- But on the other hand - to be fair - waving about a revolver with up to 65,000 p.s.i internal pressure??
For Masochistic S&W  X Frame Flashers.

Have a great day,
Marty K.





Wednesday, 27 January 2016

'BullPup Pistol' Bond Boberg @ SHOT Show 2016:

I've been impatiently looking for news of the Bobergs since their new owner Bond Arms had said that they would show their new developments at the 2016 SHOT show:

(See my 18th November 2015 post "Boberg Moving to Bond Arms").
Four Inch Barrel XR9-L Boberg (original).

Well I've just watched an Outdoor Channel video interview with Gordon Bond at the SHOT show and they had some really nice Derringers on the table - beautifully made and finished.

Toward the end of the chat Gordon Bond did introduce the Boberg - speaking well of its smooth 7 to 8 lb. trigger pull and easy slide racking. The guys commented on another design feature - that the small light return spring is unusually located to the left of the barrel instead of beneath it - allowing a lower barrel axis line for reduced recoil 'flip-up'.

Gordon also showed the bull-pup as now having a new high-quality looking Rosewood grip fitted that really enhanced the Bobergs appearance - but said that they were still reviewing the guns details before they will release it as a Bond Arms product.. much as I had expected - this will take more time.

Marty K.

Tuesday, 26 January 2016

Russian REX & Kobalt Revolvers - No Competition:

The Russian developed MP-412 REX revolver was made in the mid 1990s by Izhmash in .357"Magnum calibre - with commercial export to America as its first aim.

 But when US President Clinton got a political snitch against the capitalist Russians he placed a blanket ban on their weapons imports and this stopped the REX  from growing past its early pre-production stage.

'REX'  357 Magnum
- Nice looking - but that hinged  'Break-Action' might look "dated" perhaps.
- Maybe if they could 'disguise' that hinge-pin to appear conventional at first glance it might yet sell ..
Izhmash REX MP-412 1990s Hopeful Money Maker.

- If it had been given a chance in 'Free Market America' -  the REX  357" Magnum design might have changed perceptions that the old familiar 'break-action' Webleys and S&W Russian were dead-end designs - and that maybe this user friendly pattern can handle modern full power cartridges OK.

S&W New Model Russian .44".
The Imperial Russian Army ordered 41,000 S&W N0.3 Revolvers in 1871 - henceforth these .44"s are known as "S&W Russians".
The Schofield is a further developed version of that design:


Wells Fargo First Model S&W Schofield .45"
- Was well Liked by 'Wells Fargo and Company' (with a five inch barrel).
_________
Webley MkV1.
- Not 'Broken' - well it is but ...


________________________ 
The Russian 'Kobalt' OTS-01 Revolver was built starting from 1991-1992 in some five varieties from different Russian factories using 9x18 and 9x17mm (.380"ACP) rimless cartridges with moon-clips.
Developed by Igor Stechkin & Boris Avraamov it resembles a S&W 'J' frame with a safety on the left hand side.
- Versions were issued for use by Russian prison guards and Kazakhstan Customs border guards.
That's all I could find about these "Ruskies"
- Have a great day..
Marty K.

Sunday, 24 January 2016

.327 Federal Magnum - Super Gun & Bolt-Action AK47:

The 327 Federal Magnum can maybe claim to actually be a 'Super-Magnum' - because it is an up-powering of a cartridge that is already a magnum - the .32 H&R Magnum.

Designed and developed by Sturm, Ruger and Federal it was introduced in 2007 and was intended to give the power of a 357 Magnum in a more compact cartridge.. and it certainly achieves that comfortably.
The bullets nominal diameter is .312" (- take note that this is the same bullet diameter as the 7.62x39mm Russian 'AK47' - and the old British .303") - and in a 327 Magnum handgun this 100gn slug leaps out of its 1.2" long case at up to 1,874 ft. per sec. - or a 115gn pill can make 1,659 ft. per sec. (from a Ruger Blackhawk). - That is fast moving, flat shooting from a handgun.
 But the experts are saying that this magnum feels like shooting a .38" Special in a D.A. revolver. - And you can fit six rounds into the cylinder of a compact revolver.
- Now that sort of result is to be expected from many a hot loaded Ruger Single Action .. but the exceptional point here is that these power levels are made with "substantially less recoil and noticeably less muzzle blast than the .357 Magnum."

- Here we go - that's another gun landed on my wish list!

The .327" Federal Magnum is an uprated .32" H&R Magnum - which in its turn is an uprated .32" S&W Long - which itself was an uprated .32" S&W. (I might rename it the 32XXL).

The case length grew from 0.61" to 0.91" to 1.075" - and now measures 1.20" in its Federal Magnum guise - which I reckon is pretty well twice as long as its starting point. - "Baby's grown up some" eh.

.327" - A Case of Progress Through Time.
 
So the 327 Federal Magnum is a hard hitter with good manners and gives us the choice of three softer and lighter loaded cartridges for recreation. There should be a decent range of bullet weights available to hand-loaders - from 65gn to 135gn. and American web sites reviewing the 327 Mag. speak of excellent penetration and knock-down.
In USA You May Buy a 3"LCR in 327Magnum
& Squirt-out Six Pills Faster Than a 357Magnum.
 - That Barrel Is Too Short For NZ Police Liking.

The NRA were most impressed when it was introduced - to the extent that they awarded the 327 Federal Magnum the NRA Golden Bulls-Eye Award (2009) for "Ammo of The Year".

Re-loaders can use dies that fit the .32"H&R Magnum to stuff the 19gn powder capacity Federal cases .. should be trouble free.

You know something - if I had the funds to consider starting all over again - I'd pick 9mm, 10mm, .22"R.F and the .327" Federal Magnum as my pistol and revolver calibres. (plus .45" black powder ball).
 
Marty K.

P.S. - Did you know that the .303" British bullets were the same diameter (.312") as the Russian 7.62x39mm AK47 bullets? - When our NZ Authorities "banned" high capacity banana magazines (unless you registered as a special category MSSA shooter) - I promptly had an old SMLE .303" bolt-action rifle converted to chamber the Russian round and modified to take the AK banana magazines. - The local arms office were not amused by my enterprise eh.. well they were laughing but also shaking their heads!

an "Australian Convert"
- things to do with an old SMLE..
 
- That "?MLE-AK" bolt-action shot well for me too - but got sold at a profit eventually. Gosh I've sold some good guns in my time .. some regrets - like the song says eh.
 

Marty K.
 

Friday, 22 January 2016

UK Crims Re-Work DeActivated Guns:

A British 'criminal gang' have just been sentenced in London to a total of 45 years in prison for running an operation reactivating de-activated guns.

The leader Ishmael Brown (centre bottom row) directed the criminal acts from his prison cell in HM Prison Rochester using a hidden illegal cell phone.

- Deactivated firearms were obtained and re-engineered by ex- military Polish Bart Pawlowski (top left) a skilled metal worker - who also made ammunition for the different guns.

Two of the group were found to have a 9mm pistol in a mini-cab when searched by police in East London in June last year 2015.

Police have recovered eight reactivated weapons so far and continue looking for others. - I work-out that their prison time averages at about three and a half years each with remission - provided it's not served "concurrently" with any other time.

 - I thought the Brits were meant to be clamping down on this type of firearms crime.

- Good looking bunch eh.

Marty K.

Wednesday, 20 January 2016

Century Intl. Arms (CIA) 3 shot .38" Revolver - Derringer?:

This piece is definitely an 'oddity' but it is also another bottom-chamber-popper too. - But it isn't an historic rarity as it was announced only recently in 2014. - A 1.75" barrelled snubbie three shot capacity revolver.

I must be slow 'cause I've only just spotted it while looking for news of the Bond / Bobergs.

CIA MDL 38-3 Revolver
Doesn't look that odd from the R/H Side.
 
- But turn it over and you can see why it is only a 3 shot ..
 
 
- In the pursuit of slimness this oddity has been built with half the chambers missing!

So it is an alloy framed .38" revolver that is under an inch thick (until you fire a shot) and has three rounds available to fire D.A only - and an integral laser light.

I've seen a statement purporting to be from CIA (who are a big importer into North America) - saying that although they had made nearly 2,000 of these - they decided not to release them and have not test fired them - "They will likely be melted down".

I'd give them 12 out of 10 for trying - but looking at the display sample and its damaged screw slots in the photos and the chipping of the black finish - they probably have made the correct decision eh.

- Would it be a wild guess to wonder if these were cheaply built in a large Asian country like China?

I don't see that they saved much in the width by throwing away three of the chambers anyway.

Keep trying ..

- What is it about firing from the logical bottom chamber of a revolver that makes designers and stylists go ugly weird?

Marty K.

P.S. Why a revolver anyway? - you might have a three shot 'Derringer' by Marston of New York between 1848-1864:
Marston 3 Shot - Slim Enough?
 
Or why not go for a four shot slim-line - like the Schuler Reform of 1906-1914 that was made in .25"acp?
German Schuler Reform 1906 -1914.
- Looks Plenty Slim to Me.
-How about a modern 9mm version?
 
Marty K.

Sunday, 17 January 2016

Cimarron/Uberti Thunderer - No Colt:

Now I'm not about to make any profound personal statements about historic Colt Revolvers - as there are more Colt experts around than there are All Blacks Rugby fans ready to seize by the throat any misguided 'non-fanatic' and tear him limb from limb.
Cimarron (Uberti) Thunderer S.A.(- The Gun That Never Was.)

However I do dare to repeat this quote from John Ford via the Cimarron website : "If this wasn't the way the old west six-guns were, it's the way they should have been."

'Texas Jack' Harvey founder of Cimarron designed the trade marked Thunderer in 1990 as a blending of the Colt SAA and Colts (dare I say it?) next to useless M1877 Double-Action Revolver that was only made for a year due to its unreliability.. The M1877 was described in Gun Digest of 2001(by J B Wood) as "The worst double action trigger mechanism ever made."
Nickel Colt M1877
 
Colt M1877 - Pretty but Useless (Well - pretty useless eh)

Colt "Double Action Army".(M1878)

Now - at risk of  (-or at pains to) further upset the "Colt Rules The World" Club - I would like to add that I read that Colts not once used the names "Thunderer" or "Lightning" for their 1877 guns in any of that period factory documentation and indeed - according to Wikipedia - these names and indeed "Peacemaker" for the S.A.A. apparently all originated from the very same source - Benjamin Ketteridge - who was the largest US distributor of that time.
Colt SAA "Peacemaker?" M1873
 
Ketteridge also coined the name 'Omnipotent' for that sad M1877s much better replacement - the more robust & reliable M1878 Double Action Revolver that was to remain in production up till 1907.
 
- So, what I am saying is that the current Cimarron / Uberti Thunderer is an inspired modern blending of the styling & appearance of the 1877 D.A Colt with the reliable historic SAA action.
 
But just why am I talking about this particular toy? - Well I'll have to admit that lately I've been thinking about spending too many dollars on a Ruger version of a SAA (a New Vaquero maybe) - but have now been offered (for a third of the price) a used .357" Magnum Uberti Thunderer with the 'birds-head" grips - one that I truly have been fancying for a while.. But now you see it .. now you don't and it's gone somewhere else!

 
Uberti Thunderer in .357"Magnum - NZ Target Length Barrel.
 
Well - I've already got my stainless Ruger 357 six inch barrel D.A revolver - plus reloading dies with plenty of brass - so I was all set to feed one and discover just how comfortable those 'Birdshead' grips are to shoot.
 
Marty K.
 
 
 
 


Friday, 15 January 2016

Jacob Shaw Underhammer Percussion Revolver:

I'm not looking at this oldie because it is a rare oddity but because it's a 'bottom chamber popper'.

I was researching pictures of the Stechkin OTS-38  (revolver that fires silent 'captive-piston' ammo) and in the middle of those photos appeared a shot of the Jacob Shaw Jnr. revolver.

Under-Hammer Percussion Revolver by Jacob Shaw Jnr.

It is - like the modern current Stechkin - fired from the bottom chamber of the six shot .30" calibre cylinder.

The 1857 patented revolver has an interesting 'two-stage-action' that is a form of "Double-Action" in that it may be fired using the large main trigger to cock the hammer and rotate the cylinder then continue the long pull to finally fire the shot .. or the large trigger may be used to rotate & cock the hammer first while setting the second trigger - then that second trigger at the rear bottom inside the trigger guard is used as a hair trigger for precise accuracy at range.

It looks daft to talk about long-range shooting with this small 'pocket pistol' (3.25" tall x 5.5" long) - however it does have a sighting system that is not obvious in that first photo.

The cylinder pin has an extendable / retractable five inch hollow tube sight that is used by sighting at the small front pin on the barrel through the revolver from the rear and this is meant for use with the set trigger.

 With the sighting tube extended the sight radius is roughly doubled - ingenious but awkward to use.
 
- Jacob Shaw Jnr. of Hinckley, Ohio was in fact also a clockmaker so was skilled at fine metal working. His patent #17,698 of 30 June 1857 also clearly shows that the revolving mechanism is unusually located at the front of the cylinder where it must have been very exposed to the gasses and dirt of firing.

This very compact .30"calibre under-hammer revolver had an octagonal barrel variously recorded as both 4" and 3.25":
The nipples for the percussion caps are fully shielded at the rear of the cylinder and are angled outwards / down to face the under-hammer.. There is a loading gate on the right-hand side. Lots of different thinking incorporated into this old pocket pistol.

Information and photographs are hard to find - as although maybe as many as x50 guns were built there seems to be only one known example today.

____________
Russian Stechkin OTS-38 Fires From Bottom Cylinder
- The Top 'Barrel' is a Laser.

Note: I've written a couple of posts before - some stuff about the Stechkin OTS-38 - earlier on 16th July 2014 and on 6th July 2014.. an interesting gun with useful features in my humble. - In service use since 2002 - with their internal troops since 2012 so very much current issue.


Marty K.



Tuesday, 12 January 2016

More About NZ 'First European Settler':

Hi Marty
An interesting tale!  I wonder if Cavanagh and Kavanagh are just common spelling errors of the time?
 Interestingly, April’s great grandfather, Charles Joseph Maria de Malmanche, was the first white child born in Canterbury (19 October 1840) at Akaroa in a tent on the beach, his parents having landed from France on 17 August.  My mother’s side landed in Dunedin from Scotland in 1858, and my father’s side arrived from Ireland about 1906.  We are all bloody immigrants, eh!  Still, my grandkids are 7th generation Kiwis!
 Cheers Rod
 
Yo, Good Morning Young Rod,
I'm hoping that it's not just you and me that found that post interesting eh! Yeah - YOUR families were well early arrivals here. - MY best personal claim nowadays is that I've lived longer in NZ
than I did in UK.

Yes - the basic Irish name KAVANAGH has hundreds of spelling variations - it is an anglised version of the Gaelic (Caomhanach ). - Caomhan = St. Kevin .

The 12th century King of Leinster, Diarmuid MacMurrough sent his son Donal to be educated in 'Kill Caomhan' (St. Kevins Church)Wexford and from that point on that branch of the MacMurroughs was known as Kavanagh - which roughly means "of Kevin" .

I regularly notice on THE SIMPSONS cartoon credits, the American name 'Julie CAVENER'

Just to amuse/bore you further - the Caomhan (Kevin) bit means 'handsome by birth' - but I'm sure that you will have noticed that bit already anyway eh !!
________

I am further intrigued noticing that our New Zealand early settlers dates are far more recent than the dates for American settlers. The well known American "Pilgrims" date from 1620  - but 'Columbus' was 1492 -  and groups such as The Clovis Culture are dated as far back as 11,000 years before present.
Regarding USA - I have been looking at my family history in recent months and it seems that my father was one of fourteen siblings born (1908) in 'Stramoore', Roundwood, Co.Wicklow around the 1900 turn-of-the-century and there are likely more relations in USA than there are in Ireland - including one group now named 'Kavanaugh'.
 
Mart K.
 
 
 
 
 
 


 

Monday, 11 January 2016

The First European Settler In New Zealand:


When I noticed this internet entry of the first known NZ European settler I immediately set about investigating - looking for authentic historical records and I'm happy to say there was plenty. I became engrossed and almost delayed cooking my dinner (with minted new-potatoes, steamed greens from the garden - Yummie).

James Cavanagh was a convict on board the Australian convict ship Lady Nelson and he escaped in June 1804 while working ashore collecting firewood on The Cavelli Islands near Whangaroa, Northland. The islands are close off shore to the east of Matauri Bay.
 
The Cavalli Islands, Northland, North Island.

The Lady Nelsons Captain, Acting Lieutenant James Symons was newly appointed in 1803 and would have been most unhappy at loosing one of his sixteen convicts when driven off course for the Norfolk Islands Penal Colony - and while desperately short of both water and firewood. - Not a good start eh.

The shallow draft Lady Nelson had been very busy despite the foul weather - making multiple voyages on the eastern coast of Australia since Midshipman Symons had taken over as Captain - following George Curtoys being sent to sick quarters on shore.

Eventually after setting off for Norfolk Island they discovered that all their water, stored in three casks in the hold had leaked entirely away and the eighteen days of storms had blown them so far off course - that they instead decided to bear away for New Zealand and replenish their water and fuel there.
16m Armed Brig The Lady Nelson 1799.
Six Brass Carriage Guns (3 and 4 pounders)
She was Built as a Cutter but converted to a Brig
with Three Sliding Keels or 'Centreboards'
 
Her sliding keel centre boards gave problems right from her initial voyage - breaking and needing replacement often. - Remember this is foul mid winter weather when they arrive at the Cavellis..

The Logbook of the Lady Nelson:
 Tuesday 12th June 1804.
"At six the boat came on board with wood and an account that James Cavanagh a prisoner who was sent to cut wood had run into the brush and that a party of men had been in pursuit of him and could not find him and he was left behind; at 1/4 past nine a heavy squall: gave the vessel more cable: found her driving to shore very fast; the gale continuing and a heavy sea. Set the top-sail, main-sail and fore-top-stay sail and cut the cable. not being able to get anchor on account of vessel driving so fast; the anchor was lost, 120 fathoms of cable before 10 tacked ship, 10 past 10 began to run between Cavelli's Island and mainland, not being able to work out of the bay, up keel and fore-sail down jib and main-sail. At 11 being quite clear of land shortened sail and hove to."
____________

The Lady Nelson eventually saw Norfolk Island in the distance on 19th June, landing June 22nd - less one prisoner after a tempestuous voyage..

- In 1805 a Captain Philip Skelton reported seeing a white man in New Zealands Bay of Islands area believed to be James Cavanagh.

 - Then in 17 June 1806 the unruly crew and convicts of colonial brigantine The Venus mutineered in the bay at Port Dalrymple (Tasmania) arming themselves with muskets - leaving the captain and some crew on shore before crossing the Tasman Sea to New Zealand where six (inc.3 women) of the party left The Venus and joined James Cavanagh residing at Rangihoua in the Bay of islands.- But all of those six Venus mutineers had left within a couple of years time - the two men imprisoned in irons.

Brig The Venus - Became a Pirate Ship.

The Venus with her remaining convict/pirate crew sailed on in NZ waters and were last reported to be seen in distress in May 1808 off the NZ coast.
 Muskets.

James Cavanagh is said to have thus become the first recorded permanent European settler in New Zealand, (as opposed  to short term onshore whalers and sealers) - and was a 'Pakeha-Maori' of some value to the tribe as translator and later - when muskets became more available - as a skilled instructor of musketry for the Maori Wars..


The Bay Of Islands became a notoriously wild centre for whaling, sealing and logging with the frontier town of Kororareka becoming present day Russell - after once burning to the ground.

French Seamen on Beach at Kororareka (Russell) 1835.
 
Note: Many of these seamen on Australian government vessels were at this time recruited from ranks of the transported convicts - there being general shortages of labour - so the crewmen in charge of convicts .. were convicts.
Note 2: That my son is named James Kavanagh may have something to do with my interest! - There is no shortage of 'Kavanaghs' in the convict records of that era 200 years ago - but I had to pay for Boing747 seats to fly down here.

Marty K.